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2. Eight-panel Munjado with Calligraphy

early 20th century, Korea

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Munjado (pictorial ideograph) screens depict the Chinese ideographs of the Eight Cardinal Principles of Confucian Morality. The Eight Virtues are, in order, filial Piety (honor of one’s parents), Brotherly Love (of one’s siblings), Loyalty (to king and state), Sincerity (trustworthiness), Benevolence (virtuous action), Duty, Honor, and Humility. For each ideograph, certain strokes are substituted with a symbolic animal, bird, plant, or fish related to that virtue. Though the virtues depicted are Confucian, the pictorial symbolism is usually Daoist. Of Chinese origin, munjado screens were found in the home of almost every middle- to upper-class Korean family.

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